Lethal in Disguise 2 follows the original 2016 report and offers updated descriptions, case studies and fact sheets on kinetic impact projectiles (KIPs), chemical irritants, water cannons, disorientation devices, acoustic weapons and batons.
In addition, previously unseen devices in crowd control such as drones, electronic shock weapons, heat rays and blinding lasers are analysed in order to understand their mechanisms, deployment and effects.
Human rights standards
UN Guidance on Less Lethal Weapons in Law Enforcement
These UN guidelines were issued in 2020 and stipulate when and how to use less lethal weapons in accordance with international law.
Key International Use of Force Standards
Omega works to promote the strengthening and implementation of international standards on the use of force and for the prevention of grave human rights violations.
General Comment 37
General Comment 37 on the right of peaceful assembly (Article 21) by the UN Human Rights Committee
Joint UNSRs report on the proper management of assemblies
Joint report of the Special Rapporteur on the rights to freedom of peaceful assembly and of association and the Special Rapporteur on extrajudicial, summary or arbitrary executions on the proper management of assemblies
Information on the international process to address the torture trade
This research uncovers and exposes the links between the global trade in such "tools of torture" and the consequent use of such equipment by recipient law enforcement officials to commit torture and other ill-treatment. A study led by Omega in collaboration with civil society organisations, States, and international organizations.
Amnesty International: Tear Gas - An Investigation. What it is, how it is abused and why you should care
Amnesty, Omega: Essential Elements of the Torture-Free Trade Treaty
Unhealed Wounds: The Faces Behind the Injuries of Crowd-Control Weapons is a multimedia project combining photography, video and audio recordings
Amnesty International and Omega Research Foundation: This briefing explores the widespread, global misuse of kinetic impact projectiles (KIPs), often called rubber or plastic bullets, in the policing of public assembly.
Guides for protesters
Preparing for, Protecting Against, and Treating Tear Gas and Other Chemical Irritant Exposure: A Protestor’s Guide
As people around the world take to the streets to protest against police brutality, they are often being met with violent crackdowns by law enforcement officers firing tear gas and other crowd-control weapons. Deceptively known as “less-lethal,” these weapons can in fact cause severe injuries and even death when used with excessive force. Physicians for Human Rights has worked extensively on the health impacts of these weapons and has issued the following guidance to help people seeking to exercise their right to protest prepare for, protect against, and treat tear gas and other chemical irritant (e.g., pepper spray) exposure.
In 2016, INCLO and PHR published the groundbreaking report Lethal in Disguise: The Health Consequences of Crowd-Control Weapons.
It documented the misuse and abuse of crowd-control weapons (CCWs), their detrimental health effects and the impact of their use on the meaningful enjoyment of the rights to freedom of assembly and expression. The report highlighted the proliferation of CCWs and the widespread misuse of these weapons resulting in injury, disability and death.